Hydration and Athletic Performance: What You Need to Know

Last Updated on May 16, 2023 by Jamie

Hydration is a fundamental aspect of health that is often overlooked, particularly in the context of athletic performance. Adequate hydration is critical for physiological functions, and any imbalance can significantly affect an athlete’s performance and wellbeing. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the importance of hydration, its impact on athletic performance, and practical strategies to maintain optimal hydration.

Refreshing glass of bubbling liquid to help hydrate

Understanding Hydration

Hydration refers to the body’s absorption of water. Human bodies are approximately 60% water, and this vital fluid is involved in almost every bodily function. It aids in the regulation of body temperature, supports digestion, enables nutrient transport, lubricates joints, and is a crucial component of our cells and bodily tissues.

In the context of athletic performance, hydration takes center stage due to the body’s increased fluid loss during physical exertion. As the body’s temperature rises during exercise, it sweats to cool down, losing water and essential electrolytes in the process. This fluid loss needs to be counterbalanced with fluid intake to prevent dehydration, which can impair performance and potentially lead to serious health complications.

Woman holding a glass of juice

The Science of Hydration and Athletic Performance

The intricate link between hydration and athletic performance is well-documented in scientific literature. Let’s delve deeper into how hydration impacts various aspects of performance.

Physical Performance

Physical performance can be severely hampered by inadequate hydration. A study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research found that dehydration equivalent to 2% of body weight could negatively impact athletic performance. This effect is seen because water is crucial for delivering nutrients to muscles and facilitating the removal of waste products. When dehydrated, blood volume decreases, making it more challenging for the body to supply muscles with the oxygen and nutrients they need. This can lead to increased fatigue, decreased endurance, reduced strength, and slower recovery.

Cognitive Function

While the physical implications of dehydration are often the focus, hydration status can significantly affect cognitive function as well. Dehydration can lead to feelings of fatigue, reduced motivation, and increased perceived effort, all of which can impact an athlete’s performance. A study published in the journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise found that dehydration could impair cognitive performance, particularly attention and motor coordination, which are vital in sports.


Thermoregulation refers to the body’s ability to maintain its core internal temperature. During intense physical activity, the body produces heat, and to counterbalance this heat production, the body sweats, causing evaporative cooling. However, if an athlete is dehydrated, there is less fluid available for sweat production, which can impair the body’s ability to cool down effectively. This can lead to an increased risk of heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion or heat stroke, especially in hot, humid conditions.

Woman hydrating with two drinks

Hydration Strategies for Athletes

Optimal hydration is not just about drinking water during exercise. It’s a continuous process that requires consideration before, during, and after physical activity. Here are some key strategies:


Before beginning an exercise routine or a sports event, athletes should ensure they are adequately hydrated. This often means drinking fluids in the hours leading up to the activity. An easy gauge of hydration status is urine color: a pale, straw-like color usually indicates good hydration, while darker urine suggests a need for more fluids.

Hydration During Exercise

During physical activity, the goal is to replace the fluids and electrolytes lost through sweat. The amount and type of fluid required can depend on the duration and intensity of the exercise, as well as individual sweat rates and the environmental conditions.

For exercise lasting less than an hour, plain water is usually sufficient. However, for longer sessions, or those in hot or humid conditions where sweat loss is high, a sports drink containing electrolytes and carbohydrates can be beneficial. The electrolytes help replace the sodium and potassium lost through sweat, while the carbohydrates provide a source of energy to help maintain performance.

Post-Exercise Rehydration

Rehydration after exercise is crucial to replace the fluid and electrolytes lost through sweat and to support recovery. This often involves drinking water or sports drinks and consuming foods high in water content. A common recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine is to consume 1.5 liters of fluid for every kilogram of body weight lost during exercise. This ensures full rehydration and supports the recovery process.

Regular Hydration Checks

Athletes should monitor their hydration status regularly. This can be done by checking urine color, monitoring body weight changes before and after exercise (to estimate sweat loss), and being aware of symptoms of dehydration, such as dry mouth, fatigue, and dizziness.

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Woman hydrating

The Role of Individual Differences

It’s important to note that hydration needs can vary widely between individuals. Factors such as body size, sweat rate, exercise intensity and duration, and environmental conditions can all influence an individual’s hydration requirements. For instance, larger individuals or those who sweat heavily may need to consume more fluids than their counterparts.

Individual differences also mean that the sensation of thirst varies between people. While thirst is a good indicator that you need to drink, it’s not always a timely signal. Some people may not feel thirsty until they are already dehydrated, so it’s important not to rely on thirst alone as a guide for when to drink.

Hydration Myths and Misconceptions

Despite the importance of hydration, there are several myths and misconceptions surrounding this topic. One common myth is that athletes should ‘drink as much as possible’ during exercise. While it’s essential to replace lost fluids, over-drinking can lead to a condition called hyponatremia, where the body’s sodium levels become dangerously low. This condition can be just as serious as dehydration, so it’s important to balance fluid intake with individual needs and losses.

Another misconception is that sports drinks are always a superior choice to water for hydration. While sports drinks can be beneficial during prolonged or high-intensity exercise, they are not always necessary. For moderate exercise or everyday hydration, water is often sufficient, and consuming too many sports drinks can lead to excessive sugar intake.


Hydration plays a crucial role in supporting athletic performance and overall health. Maintaining optimal hydration involves more than just drinking water during exercise – it’s a continuous process that requires attention before, during, and after physical activity. By understanding the importance of hydration and employing practical strategies, athletes can support their performance, recovery, and overall wellbeing.

Remember, each individual’s hydration needs are unique, and it’s essential to listen to your body and adjust your hydration practices accordingly. If you’re unsure about your hydration needs or how to manage hydration around exercise, it’s a good idea to seek advice from a healthcare provider or a sports dietitian.

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